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Cavorting Among Ancient Trees in an Old Growth Forest

This Old Growth Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) hosts this is large example of what I believe to be Heterobasidion annosum, one of the most destructive parasitic fungi that destroys conifers by attacking exposed roots and tree butts as shown here. These fungi are hugely destructive in European Forests and somewhat destructive in the North America. Given its size, this H. annosum must be getting great nutrients from this very old hemlock.

Pacific Northwest

Whatcom County, WA

There is a 700 acre stand of old growth forest sequestered in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains about 25 miles east of Bellingham WA, and about 10 miles west of Mt. Baker at the edge of the Mt.  Baker – Snoqualmie National Forest. I had long wanted to see and experience this ancient forest as it is one of the two largest such stands in the Pacific Northwest – the other being Grove of the Patriarchs in the Mt. Rainier National Park.  Around here old growth forest is revered as an endangered vestige of our natural world as it once was in the same way that other revered PNW icons, the Orca and the salmon are endangered.  And maybe for that reason, it is a good thing that this forest is not readily accessible to the public.

This old growth tract resides within a larger 2,300 acre parcel, currently owned in part by our county park system and is designated as a nature preserve that is technically open to the public. However, access is limited. The only access is via a system of gated and active logging roads owned by Sierra Pacific Timber company.  On occasion the Whatcom Land Trust, which initially orchestrated the purchase of this tract in 1998 and holds a conservation easement on those roads, can obtain the keys to the gates. Without access to a key, it is an additional 5.7 mile hike past the locked gate just to get to the trail head.

At a recent fund raiser for the Whatcom Land Trust, a few tickets were auctioned off for a guided hike into this forest. I was fortunate enough to get one.

The yellow outlined area circumscribes the core of the forest with the lake and the trail head lower center and the old growth forest at the bottom right. The other yellow pins mark other Land trust properties that have been subjects of previous Buckets along the Nooksack river corridor that you can see running along the top of the photo.

As I contemplated this hike, I have to admit that I was in a state both of high anticipation and no small measure of trepidation – the hike was described as a 10 mile “strenuous” climb, with ~ 2,300 foot elevation rise. (It was indeed strenuous but not quite 10 miles)

This “Canyon Lake Community Forest” is now co-owned and managed as a preserve by the Whatcom County Parks Department for the preservation and recreational maintenance and by Western Washington University which provides educational and research input to the forest.  As noted above, the Whatcom Land Trust which initially orchestrated the purchase holds a conservation easement on the property to assist in maintaining its educational value and future preservation.   

Sign at the trailhead describing the history of the forest

At one edge of this Community forest lies Canyon Lake that is a relative newcomer to the region. Geologists believe that it was formed approximately 150 years ago, when a massive landslide, probably precipitated by a 7.1 + earthquake in 1872 brought a hillside of ancient red cedar trees and sedimentary underpinning careening into the valley damming Canyon Creek. The result was a 45 acre lake backed up before Canyon Creek was able to squeeze by and continue its flow down the mountain to reach the North Fork of the Nooksack River. 

Remnants of that 150 year old slide still protrude from the lake as Western Red Cedar are highly resistant to rot and can maintain in water for as long as the initial tree was alive. The old growth forest lies near the top of the far ridge above the lake in the vicinity of the fog/cloud.

From the trailhead at the north end of the lake one can take a two mile lake loop hike or continue on up the canyon and canyon walls to the old growth forest. A short way up the trail we come to a fossil of a large palm frond, taken from this area that is a remnant of the Eocene epoch (33.7 to 56 Million years ago). At that time, long before the Cascade Mountains were formed, this area was a subtropical forest and flood plain. Its vestiges are readily visible with numerous fossils encased in sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rock that forms this Chuckanut Formation and that underlies much of this region and the Cascade foothills.

 I Previously described the origins of this Chuckanut formation and its plethora of fossils including a hike to Slide Mountain, where fossils now lie open to the skies, exposed by frequent slides (hence “Slide Mountain”)  a few miles east of Canyon Lake. See:  here, here, and here. These sedimentary based foothills have sloughed off their million year old layers and many have continued downhill and into the Nooksack River where they are currently easily accessible.

Up the trail:

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landslide from across the lake

As we proceeded up the mountain side we could look across the lake  to the slope of the original landslide. Now we can see the scar of a more recent, although lesser slide and its slump extending nearly down to the lake.  

The initial part of this trail followed an old logging road up the mountain at their typical 17% grade. This part of the trail was well maintained, meandering and switching back through second growth timber with openings of more recent undergrowth of vine maple, alder, ferns, grasses and wildflowers.

The barely visible trail through lush undergrowth and relatively new conifers

About halfway up we got a break in the vegetation and were able to see back down to the lake in the valley below.

Moving on, any open spaces not yet reforested were filled in with large runs of Goldenrod that is prevalent at lower to middle elevations.

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Moving into the Ancient Forest:

This early September day was very warm and humid and as we approached the entry into the forest, I was feeling overheated and really beat. However, walking into the old growth forest from the more open, previously logged slopes, I was struck by several things.

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A cool mossy waterfall dribbling across the trail. This little rivulet was so refreshing and it oozed coolness even though this was late in the dry season.

First there was sharp dividing line of harvested forest land and old forest. Entering the old forest felt like walking into an air conditioned house on a hot day. Aside from the coolness, there was an immediate change in all levels of vegetation – no vine maple, scrub alder, or typical wildflowers as shown above. We were now above the middle elevation with a whole new set of trees with its canopy, understory and forest floor. In the cooler and moister soil, fungi, lichen and mosses were all over as were other plants that were not immediately recognized by many of us hikers.  One indicator of this change in vegetation was that my cell phone became in high demand. On the way up, I had been using Seek (an iNaturalist app that can identify living things) to identify plants and everyone in the group had an interest in it. Being unfamiliar with many of these new plants they were calling me to come and ID this and that. It seemed that Seek was accessible up here on my iphone even though we had a relatively weak signal.  They could not wait to get back into stronger cell coverage to download it.

The biodiversity of this forest was astounding. I had read about it before the hike and here it was in my face. Below is a paragraph from a manual directed at visitors to this forest written by faculty at Huxley College of the Environment at WWU that illustrated this:

Old growth forests are more than just trees. Complex, symbiotic relationships developed over centuries between the organisms present in old growth forest ecosystems. Lichen in the forest canopy pull nitrogen from the air which is washed down to the soil and used by the forest’s vegetation. Symbiotic fungi attached to roots supply plants and tree with water and nutrients and in return take carbohydrates. Animals eat vegetation and help spread seeds across the forest.

This was followed by an apt quote from John Muir:

When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.

john Muir

Another interesting note is that these Pacific Northwest temperate old growth forests have the largest amount of biomass (the weight and density of living organisms) of any forest on Earth. I found this both interesting and surprising. This is another excellent reason for preserving these forests.

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Red Baneberry (Actaea rubra) likes shady moist forests

After eating lunch along the Old Forest trail, it was time go for the last leg of the hike, another mile up to the canyon rim. Since I wanted to conserve some energy for the trip back down the mountain I opted, rather than to keep going up, to stay in the forest, to explore it and to photograph these glorious flora.  The fellow hikers would come back by on their way down to collect me. This was a good decision to stay as I found so many neat things that I otherwise would not have seen. And as it turned out the day was too cloudy to see the surrounding mountain tops from the canyon rim. As it was I logged 22,780 + steps and 8.1 miles  according to my iphone. That was enough for these old bones. 

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Hi Doug, I won’t be here long. Ignore me and go about your business.

After everyone else moved on, I explored the area up and down the trail through this ancient forest. The only sounds I heard were the caws of some distant ravens and a Douglas Squirrel. Dougy came to check out this intruder who had ensconced himself into his private space (see photo to the right). After exploring for a while,  I had settled into a comfy padded resting place made up of a mossy pad with soft mossy log headrest. I was comfortable, cool and had a front row seat to this beautiful ancient forest. Some of the tree photos below are from this supine perch looking into the canopy of this enchanting forest.

The forest trees themselves also differed from those at lower elevations. In particular the old growth species comprised Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana  ), Alaska Yellow Cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), and Pacific Silver fir (Ambes amabilis). Although this particular grove of old growth trees is thought to be older than most in the PNW, they are not giants as one might expect even though many have been growing for up to 800 or a 1,000 years. By comparison, those south of here in the Mt. Rainier National Park are younger but much larger. The difference is that those to the south live at about 2,200 feet elevation whereas these live in the neighborhood of 4,000 plus feet where they are buried in snow for at least 6 months of the year. 

One interesting example of these stunted size of these old trees is the case of the Pacific Silver Fir. In the understory, it often just bides its time for years until one of the surrounding larger trees comes down and opens it up the sun. With this new light, the Silver Fir takes off and grows rapidly. Right is a sample round cut from a Silver Fir: This sample of less that 4” diameter is some 240 years old!

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That this grove of ancient forest has persisted and survived as long as it has is attributed to the fact that it sits high on a north facing slope which preserves snowpack for 6 months or more of the year. This elevation and position facilitates retention of ground moisture and exposes it to less direct sun. This high north facing position then is thought to have protected it from at least three forest fires that have burned surrounding areas over recent centuries.

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A stately Alaska Yellow Cedar shading my backyard

Alaska Yellow Cedar (aka Alaska Cedar, yellow cypress, yellow cedar) too likes moist sites and grows from  the coastal PNW to the timberline in the Cascades. It is the longest living tree in our region, with a lifespan of up to 1,500 years. It is a fairly slow growing tree which is good for me as I have three of these in my yard.

The Hemlock is an important tree to this forest as well and has been so recognized for a long time.  The genus name of Hemlock, Tsuga comes from the Japanese terms for tree and mother, which I believe speaks well for this tree and its position in the forest.  It can live up to 1,400 years.

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 More Mountain Hemlock and Pacific Silver Fir

The Mountain Hemlock’s wood is deemed somewhat inferior (susceptible to rot and insect attack) to its larger cousin, the Western Hemlock (our State Tree) which generally grows at lower elevations also making it more readily available for harvesting.  This fact probably accounts for the “mountain” species being logged less which has probably saved some such forest stands. The mountain Hemlock is used often as an ornamental as it is slow growing and indeed, I have one of these in my yard.

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Old Growth Alaskan Cedar and Hemlock, not large but maybe old.

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Ornamental Mountain Hemlock by the house with salal grounding it

Fungi:

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Violet Webcap   (Cortinarius violaceus)  

One final observation from this forest wonderland is that its environment is a great host for a large selection of fungi, many of which are highly beneficial to the other forest constituents.  However, the lead photo shows one of the more destructive fungi, (Heterobasidion annosum) that saps nutrients from the the trees such as the Mountain Hemlock shown there. Below are a few of the many others that I observed there.

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Tiger’s eye (Coltricia pernnis) Family: Hymenochaetaceae. 

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Bloody Brittlegill  (Russela sanguinaria)  

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Blackening Brittlegill (Russula nigricans)

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Boletus smithii 

Finally as we ambled our way down the mountain I was able to see some other features that I had missed on the way up. One was a outcropping of some of the underlying Chuckanut Sandstone and other sedimentary layers supporting this forest. As is evident, this deposit is crumbly with stratified layers. This is the sort of shakey support that must have given way during the earthquake that created Canyon Lake and the more recent slide shown previously.

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This eastern part of the sedimentary Chuckanut Formation consists largely of sandstone and siltstone with some layers of coal and conglomerate, 

After eight hours on the trail, with my head full of wonder and my cameras full of photos, I considered this a successful trip. And I was happy that I had finally made the trip and also happy that l did not have to think of doing it again. I have now scratched Canyon Lake Community Forest from my bucket list. 

An Escape to Orcas Island in the Salish Sea

 

View from Turtle Back looking south west

My brother who belongs to a time share condo-resort group treated us to a week at Deer Harbor Resort on Orcas Island in mid January. As some of you might know, this is not far from our home in Bellingham, less than 20 miles as the crow flies. However, after an hour’s drive along the coast and another hour’s ferry ride through scenic islands, we could have been a thousand miles away.

 

And we really lucked out on the weather for mid January – mostly sunny with just a bit of rain at night.

The San Juan Islands are an archipelago that lies between the north western coast of WA state and Vancouver Island within the Salish Sea. On the map below Orcas Island is the horseshoe shaped one in the upper center of the map. You can see part of Vancouver Island with Victoria in the lower left side. Bellingham and Bellingham Bay where we live are on the upper right.

Deer Harbor where we stayed is the smallish inlet on the lower left side of the island, just west of West Sound

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Nooksack River Part 2 – The History and Current State of the River

Chum Salmon Spawning on Chuckanut Creek

 

In part I of this series I described the Nooksack River from its headwaters in the North Cascade     Mountains through its course to the Salish Sea. I made the case that this river, along with others like it, were critically important to sustaining our icons of the Salish Sea  – salmon and orcas. Sustaining these icons is dependent in part on the health of these rivers that grow the fish which in turn feed our resident orca.   That is, healthy rivers are a necessary but not a sufficient condition for saving these critters. In this part I relate the history of the river, what has happened to it and why it is important today that it is restored to health and maintained.


On casual viewing, most of this river appears robust and healthy as seen in Part 1. Although much of river is in pretty good shape, closer examination shows that it is not totally pristine, especially as it pertains to our aquatic friends.  In general, the river is relatively healthy in its upper reaches and deteriorates progressively as it flows toward the sea which corresponds with the increased density of residential and agricultural occupation.  The story of the Nooksack River has been written numerous times of other rivers all across the continent from east to west. The Nooksack was one of the last to experience change as the area was not settled until the mid to latter part of the 19th C.

As noted, the Nooksack and Lummi Indians have flourished in this area along the river for thousands of years as it provided them with an abundance of everything they wanted and needed. The River teemed with salmon much of the year as each of the five species had spawning runs at different times of the year. They had nutritious roots of all kinds, including their namesake the “Nooksack” – Bracken Fern roots. In addition to salmon and roots, they had access to all the meat they could process including deer, elk, bear, beaver, mountain goats, cougar, birds, shellfish and more. They had dense forests of Douglas Fir and Western Red Cedar that provided lumber for their longhouses and canoes. For thousands of years they had lived as part of this natural system. They wanted for little.

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Sketch of the Hawley family being ferried up the Nooksack by Indian Jim, a  Nooksack Indian Chief, to stakeout their Homestead (1872). Sketch by RE Hawley from his book “Skqee Mus — or Pioneer Days on the Nooksack,” 1945. RE Hawley is the child in the canoe.

Then in the latter 1850s and thereafter, the white settlers showed up and staked out homesteads along their river and in its watershed. Although they seemed to have gotten along well with local Indians and many became lifelong friends, the new settlers brought their ways that began changing the character of the land and therefore the river. The new homesteaders saw these natural wonders as something to be exploited and they were good at it.

The first homesteading took place in the flat prairie land surrounding the lower 30 miles downstream from where the south fork joined the main river. These prairies were covered with timber and large expanses of ferns, hence one of the early towns was named “Ferndale.”

The first thing the new settlers did was clear the forest and fern prairies for farmland. Since the river was their main mode of transportation, they first cleared and built along its banks. Because they wanted boats larger than dugout canoes to bring equipment and supplies up the river, they cleared out the natural log jams and beaver dams so they could get a steam boat upriver. This river excavation destroyed spawning and rearing habitat of the salmon.

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Logged hillsides above the Nooksack valley with cleared forest along the river for farmland as they appear today. Logging and farming continue. Rain runoff of which we have plenty, eroded the hillsides and denuded land, sending mud and silt that interferes with salmon spawning beds in the river bottom. the river is seen running through the valley right to left.

The logs were skidded to saw mills which were situated on and powered by the river. The mills further stirred up the stream also destroying spawning grounds. The effects of this logging and farming denuded much of the river’s watershed leaving bare land without natural flora to slow the rain and flooding runoff. And it continues yet today although it is being better regulated.

This first settled part of the river regularly flooded the crops and is now mostly diked and dredged which destroyed the salmon habitat in the first 30 miles. The fish must swim at least 30 to 50 miles up each of the forks and feeder creeks to find adequate spawning beds. The growth continues with more farms, vacation housing developments, and logged hillsides but with increasing environmental regulation and government and NGOs to preserve the remaining waters.

A local district biologist for the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife described the river as unstable.

Rainstorms cause sudden, dramatic increases in river flows, followed by sudden drops. The flood stage destroys redds – the salmon egg nests – washing them away in the current or suffocating them with mud deposits. The drops destroy other redds the salmon laid when the water was higher, leaving them high and dry.

“Our biggest problem is egg-to-fry survival,” Barkdull said. “There’s basically no habitat left in the main stem … The Nooksack has been diked, ditched, straightened. Any evil you can commit on a river has been done to the Nooksack.”

That pretty well sums up the state of the lower reaches of the Nooksack River and as noted above, progressively less so as one moves upstream. As a whole the river is still quite viable. But there are big problems, the greatest of which is the loss of salmon.

Wild Salmon (except Sockeye) in most of the streams feeding the Salish Sea are listed as threatened according the Endangered Species Act.  Their numbers have plummeted in recent years and are nearly gone in many streams. Although all five species still find their way home and spawn in the Nooksack River or its tributaries, the numbers are small as is the case for most all streams leading into the Salish Sea.

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Note that the greatest losses are to the fish of the Salish Sea with less loss out on the coastal rivers. 

Most salmon spend much of their first year or so in freshwater streams and this first year is critical to their ultimate survival. To the extent that their stream is healthy and with adequate food, they can grow larger and faster, traits that decrease their chances of being eaten by larger prey. Although more are lost while at sea after leaving the river, the early rearing conditions are also vital to their ultimate survival, the rate of which is diminishing significantly. Over the past 50 years, Salish Sea salmon and steelhead survival rates (returning to spawn) have shrunk from 3 per 100 to just 1 per 100. With that rate of loss these fish are clearly not sustainable for long.

Considerable study now confirms that stormwater runoff contains thousands of toxic chemicals including heavy metals and hydrocarbons all of which are highly toxic to fish. Exposed to concentrations of these chemicals salmon develop what is now called the “ Urban Runoff Mortality Syndrome.”

The river, the salmon and the ecosystem

The focus of the river preservation would appear to be on “save the salmon,” but the task is  more accurately: “Save the river and its ecosystem” and then you will save the salmon. These fish do not exist in isolation as they are part of a highly interdependent network of both flora and fauna, all parts of which must be preserved. While the stream’s biological health fosters the salmon, the salmon’s bodies also nourish other river denizens such as numerous macroinvertebrates. These stream critters include:

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The number and types of macroinvertebrates present is a clear indicator of stream health.

You will see in the adjacent photo that the macroinvertebrates can be placed into three classes relative to their tolerance of pollutants: 1. Those that are intolerant, 2. Those that are somewhat tolerant, and 3. Those that can tolerate pollution and survive.

These invertebrates are important food sources for young salmon fry as they mature after hatching in spawning streams.  Other stream critters such as the American Dipper eat dragonflies, various larva, worms, small fish, (salmon fry) and fish eggs (salmon roe).

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American Dipper feeds on macroinverts and salmon fry.

Salmon also nourish other critters and are referred to a “Keystone Species” in both aquatic and terrestrial environments in that their presence contributes to the survival and reproduction of some 40 other vertebrate species. These include the salmon themselves, trout, eagles, ravens, crows, Bear, wolves, coyotes, river otter and other mammals who feast on their eggs, carcasses, or their young.

Less spectacular but very important to the riparian environment is that the decomposing salmon carcasses also provide nutrients for algae in the streams, for trees and other plants along the stream. An interesting correlation has been found between size of a given year’s salmon run and the nitrogen levels found in tree growth rings along a river’s riparian zone. This occurs when the above animals drag salmon from the river to the adjacent woods where they devour the most nutritious portions of the fish, eating mostly their bellies and roe. They then leave the rest of the carcass to decompose into the soil.

Based on research on salmon streams in Alaska scientists have found trace nutrients from salmon bodies in mosses, herbs, shrubs, insects, song birds, bears and wolves.  Salmon feed the whole gamut of  wildlife that lives in or near their streams.

Salmon are important for sustaining their ecosystem which needs to be preserved or we will be left with barren, sterile, stinky and muddy water running to the sea which in turn will be barren and lifeless.

The effects of the  river’s pollution does not end when it reaches the salt water. It flows into the intertidal shores and continues its pollution.  The water’s high nitrogen and phosphorous content from manure and fertilizer runoff fosters rapid phytoplankton growth. Often, but not always these “blooms” of algae turn the water red and are referred to as red tides. Since they do not always turn the water red, they are more recently called Harmful Algal Blooms, (HABs). Shellfish consume and even thrive on these algae without harm but as certain algae accumulate, they can build to levels that are toxic and even fatal to humans and marine mammals. When the levels become toxic, all shellfish harvesting (recreational and commercial) is closed down. Currently the local beaches here are closed to Mussel harvest due to toxic levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poison.

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Streaks of a Red tide or HAB in Bellingham Bay in August- nutrients plus warmth promotes algae blooms.

The pollution harms the river water and then the tidewaters (shellfish) and on into the Salish Sea affecting all marine life there including  fish and whales.

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Big handsome guy T49A1 flying high around the San Juans.
Photo by Gary Sutton, Oct 4, 2018 
(This is not a local resident but he hangs out in the islands.) They are magnificent!

Most dependent on the salmon for their lives are the resident orca that have lived in the Salish Sea for eons. Our three local resident pods, designated: J, K, & L, rely solely on a salmon diet or they starve. Like their food source, salmon, the Salish Sea resident orca are in serious decline.

So What led to this threatening state of affairs?

In a nutshell the salmon habitat has been eroded, they have been overfished, polluted and poisoned. The issue is a problem with the entire ecosystem.  Following is an enumeration of some of specific causes of decline of this river. Clearly these are not unique to this river.

  • Artificially banked levees for the last 30 miles to protect farmlands from flooding preclude natural stream hydraulic processes. Clearing and dredging eliminated log jams or build up of logs and debris that naturally create deep pools and slow moving waters for spawning and rearing salmon fry.  Thus there are no spawning beds in the lower stretch of the river and no cool deep pools for fish to grow and mature.
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    Dikes along the lower reaches of the Nooksack to prevent flooding farmland behind the trees. The river was not naturally this straight. It is more like a canal.

  • Fouled by mud flows and slides from surrounding logged hillsides.
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Logged hillsides along the North Fork

  • Tributary creeks which are also spawning creeks have been crossed by roads built over with culverts that replace the natural streams for the salmon to navigate to get to their spawning areas. A recent Supreme Court decision upheld a lower court decision brought by 21 northwest tribes with treaty rights to salmon, that required the State to replace all road culverts that impaired returning salmon’s pathways to their natal streams. Replacement will take many years and cost about 4 billion dollars. 
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    Typical road culverts in salmon spawning streams -Squalicum Creek.

  • Agricultural product runoff such as animal manure and chemicals used as  fertilizers . Many dairy farms now have manure holding ponds to control runoff but these can leak and seep into the water table and into the river or a stream that feeds into the river. Septic tank leakage is another problem in the rural districts.
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Lovely blueberry and dairy farms at the foot of the mountains but close to the Nooksack river. Runoff is significant

  • Stretches of the river are warmed by temperature change, loss of riparian zone trees and shrubs that shade the streams. The fish need cool and well oxygenated waters to thrive.
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Salmon need the water cool, not too hot not too cold

  • Trash, including plastics and other toxic materials have been and continue to be  dumped at many points along the river. This has significant consequences for the fish as among many other toxins dumped. It has been recently determined that toxins from tires might contribute, among many other chemicals, to the death of Coho salmon that seem particulrly susceptible to effects of toxic storm run off.
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The nailed on sign urges residents to stop dumping trash at river restoration site. 

There you have a description of the Nooksack river itself, its history from being a cornucopia to the Nooksack Indians and their related tribes for thousands of years and it having been nearly brought to its knees in 150 years of use and abuse.

The final episode (part 3) will describe many of the heroic efforts underway to reclaim and restore the river by County, State and Federal government agencies, NGOs and thousands of volunteers.

 

The Nooksack River – a Treasure to Preserve

North Fork of Nooksack River at Horseshoe Bend – Mount Baker National Forest

I’ve written of conservation efforts to preserve our local PNW waters and the salmonids that spawn and live in these streams. In these posts I have periodically mentioned the Nooksack but I have not featured this marvelous River as it deserves.

The Nooksack River is neither a large nor a long river by most standards as it runs only 75 miles from its origin in the glaciers of the North Cascade Mountains to its delta and mouth where it empties into Bellingham Bay to become part of the Salish Sea.

However, its relatively small size does not diminish its importance to the Pacific Northwest and its marine environment. The Nooksack is one of the few streams in the PNW that supports all five native pacific salmon species as well other salmonids such as steelhead and the rare Bull trout.

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The Torturous Tenacity of Trees: Nurse logs, stumps, and rocks

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Gnarled roots entwined from Cedar and fir trees seeking sustenance where they can

This is a photo diary on some unconventional looking trees I’ve observed in my various local wanderings. Some appear to be growing and prospering under rather difficult and stark conditions. Their shapes are often graceful and even artsy. Others are contorted, gross, gangly, and even eerie, but all are interesting.

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What a 54,000,000 year old rock formation has to offer us today

 

Chuckanut Mountain

Chuckanut Mountain, Whatcom County WA

In stark contrast to the mountainous Pacific Northwest of today, during the Eocene epoch (~ 55 ~ 34 Million YearsAgo (MYA) it was quite flat. However just as today, the region then was lush with vegetation and interlaced with braided streams meandering from what is now Eastern Washington on to the Pacific Ocean. This was a tropical swamp with exotic plants and animals (although some would be familiar yet today). As the streams approached the ocean, they slowed and their sediments of sand, clay, and silt carried from huge rock formations to the east, settled out. Over millions of years these sediments accumulated, were compressed by gravity and tectonic forces, and solidified into immense geologic rock formations. This bucket is about one of these structures – the Chuckanut Formation made up primarily of sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate, and shale, with pockets of coal from the ancient compressed vegetation.
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This formation is not only in my backyard it is under it as well. These  deposits extend to depths of nearly 20,000 feet in places. My focus here is on the Chuckanut Mountains which comprise 10 separate but related mountains (and hills) in and around Whatcom and Skagit Counties in northwest WA. In particular, I will focus mainly on Chuckanut Mountain itself (for which the formation was named) and a bit on Sehome Hill which is most directly in my back yard. In addition segments of this and related sedimentary formations are spread across the northwest, including the San Juan Islands and up into British Columbia.

 

What’s a Chuckanut? Although most agree that the name is derived from one of the local native languages, there are several interpretations for what “Chuckanut”, means.  I will go with the one from the US Geological Survey: “Long beach far from a narrow entrance.” Beyond that I do not know where the narrow entrance is.

Consisting of sedimentary deposits, these mountains would be expected to show numerous layers of the ages, accumulated over millions of years. And of course they do. Many of these layers now are tilted and folded indicating that they were subjected to tectonic and various geologic forces emanating  from several faults in the area. This formation is thought to have been folded about 40 mya, toward the end of the eocene epoch. So now these sedimentary remnants are hills and mountains, nestled as foothills of the Cascade range as well as being dispersed throughout local islands in the Salish Sea.

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A sandstone block From Chuckanut Mt. showing layers that were once flat

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Layering along an eroding coast line in Chuckanut Bay

 

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Layers folded to the vertical

The sculpting process and creation of honeycombs called Tafoni

Tafoni are ellipsoidal, pan- to bowl-shaped, natural rock cavities. These cavernous weathering features include tiny pits, softball-sized cavities, truck-sized caves, and nested and cellular honeycomb forms. Tafoni typically develop on inclined or vertical surfaces and occur in groups.

 

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Tafoni in cliffs at Clayton Beach

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Shapes and various tafoni; I see a snail crawling up to the left

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Kids love the big cave sized tafoni

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Tafoni at water’s edge with concretion on the left.

The term “Tafoni” appears to originate from Greek and/or Latin with meanings variously of “tomb,” “window” or like openings.   
The erosive processes that creates these interesting tafoni are the result of weathering processes followed by erosion. Weathering involves various physical and chemical processes by which sand sized rock clasts and minerals that make up the rock, are loosened such as freeze — thaw cycles that expand spaces between grains, and blowing sand or sediments from water pounding on the rock.  Chemical processes too contribute such as water and carbon dioxide that weaken the mineral bonds holding rocks together.
Erosion then is the process that actually removes the weakened and loosened clasts including water pressure, wind, and the ever present gravity. Recall, these are typically on slanted or vertical surfaces. Weathering and erosion account for the loss of grains and the eating away of the rocks. However, the honeycomb form consists of eroded cavities with non-eroded walls (septa) that separate the holes. What appears to account for septa not eroding is that algae are present that protect the rock from the weathering processes. Surfaces without algae are eroded and leave the holes.
Note in the photos below that lighter, sand-colored surfaces are eroding whereas the darker, algae covered portions are not eroding. Also note that there are patches of lichen scattered around that also provide protection from weathering.
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More tafoni and erosion
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Algae and lichen cover and protect this piece.
In addition to the tafoni, these same processes can work to form other designs such as mushroom-like formations with algae on top and the base being eroded.
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Mushroom-like version with top preserved and stem eroding
These and many other patterns are found along the chuckanut formation components including the sandstone portions of the San Juan Islands, particularly those exposed directly to salt water.